Ethiopia Studies


My studies in Ethiopia started in 1994 when I started to work with my first Ethiopian PhD-student Bekele Shiferaw. The first studies took place in some villages near Debre Zeit (Oromia region), Andit Tid in North Shewa, and in Anjeni in Gojjam (Amhara region). Bekele’s PhD-dissertation focused on land degradation and conservation incentives and policies for sustainable land management. Work later expanded to SNNP region (Wondo Genet and Wollaita), Tigray regions (from 1998) and to Oromia region (Arsi Negelle and Sashemene) from 2003. Capacity building (MSc- and PhD-students) was an integrated part of the research. Numerous Master students obtained their degrees through our Development and Resource Economics program. My PhD-students from Ethiopia that have completed their degrees in my department are listed below. Most of my research in Ethiopia has been in close collaboration with my current and ex-PhD students. The research has focused on rural development and natural resource management issues of high policy relevance to Ethiopia. This research output over close to 25 years I believe constitutes a valuable data and knowledge base that will be important also for formulating future research. This webpage aims to provide an overview of the work and provides links to papers that can be accessed legally. I hope this resource can become of use to many Ethiopian students and others interested in rural development issues in Ethiopia.


Study areas & data collection periods


  • Debre Zeit (Oromia) 1994-2001
  • Andit Tid (Amhara) 1994-2001
  • Anjeni (Amhara) 1994-2001
  • Wondo Genet (SNNP) 1998-2012
  • Wollaita (SNNP) 1998-2012
  • Sashemene & Arsi Negelle (Oromia) 2005-2012
  • Tigray (16-18 locations) 1998-2015

Contributed to Documenting Award-winning policy:

Thanks to a unique combination of collective action, voluntary labour and the involvement of young people, the people of Tigray in northern Ethipia are restoring land on a massive scale. For its remarkable achievements under harsh conditions, Tigray’s policy was recognized with the Future Policy Gold Award 2017, awarded by the World Future Council in partnership with the UNCCD. Link



My Ethiopian PhD students & year of completion (+ link to PhD dissertation in Brage)


Bekele Shiferaw (1998)


Fitsum Hagos (2003):

Poverty, institutions, peasant behavior and conservation investment in northern Ethiopia. Abstract.

PhD Dissertation


Menale Kassie (2005):

Technology adoption, land rental contracts and agricultural productivity. Abstract. PhD Dissertation


Worku Tessema (2007):

Poverty, resource use and intensification strategies of smallholders under population pressure in southern Ethiopia. Abstract. PhD Dissertation


Gebrehaweria Gebrezhiaber (2008):

Risk and irrigation investment in a semi-arid economy. Abstract. PhD Dissertation


Hosaena Ghebru (2010)


Sosina Bezu (2010):

Rural nonfarm employment in Ethiopia: participation, impacts and dynamics. Abstract. PhD Dissertation


Million Tadesse (2010):

Essays on contracts, risk coping and technology adoption in Ethiopia. Abstract. PhD Dissertation


Bethelhem Legesse (2014):

Attaining secure rural livelihood : the role of household strategies and public interventions. Abstract.

PhD Dissertation



Research Projects


Incentives for conservation (funding Research Council of Norway)

Baseline survey in Tigray (1998) Baseline report:

Hagos, F. and Holden, S. T. Incentives for Conservation in Tigray, Ethiopia: Findings from a Household Survey. CLTS Report No. 1/2017. Reprint from 2002. Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas, Norway. Link


Surveys in Andit Tid and Anjeni

Shiferaw, B. and Holden, S. T.(1998). Resource Degradation and Adoption of Land Conservation Technologies in the Ethiopian Highlands: A Case Study in Andit Tid, North Shewa. Agricultural Economics 18: 233-247. Abstract


Holden S. T., Shiferaw, B. and Pender, J. (2001). Market Imperfections and Land Productivity in the Ethiopian Highlands. Journal of Agricultural Economics 52 (3): 62-79. Abstract


Policies for Sustainable Land Management (IFPRI, ILRI, funding Norwegian MFA)

Surveys in Andit Tid (1998-1999) & Second round survey in Tigray (2001)


Publications:

Holden S. T., Benin, S., Shiferaw, B. and Pender, J. (2003). Tree Planting for Poverty Reduction in Less-Favoured Areas of the Ethiopian Highlands. Small-scale Forest Economics, Management and Policy 2 (1): 63-80. Abstract


Holden, S. T. and Shiferaw, B. (2004). Land Degradation, Drought and Food Security in a Less-favoured Area in the Ethiopian Highlands: A Bio-economic Model with Market Imperfections. Agricultural Economics 30 (1): 31-49. Abstract


Holden, S. T., Shiferaw, B. and Pender, J. (2004). Non-farm Income, Household Welfare and Sustainable Land Management in a Less-favoured Area in the Ethiopian Highlands. Food Policy 29, 369-392. Abstract


Holden, S. T., Shiferaw, B. and Pender, J. (2005). Policy Analysis for Sustainable Land Management and Food Security – A Bio-economic Model with Market Imperfections. Research Report 140. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington D. C. Abstract and Full Report


Holden, S. T., Shiferaw, B. and Pender, J. (2006). Policies for Poverty Reduction, Sustainable Land Management and Food Security  – A Bio-economic Model with Market Imperfections. In J. Pender, F. Place and S. Ehui (eds.), Strategies for Sustainable Land Management in the East African Highlands. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, D. C. Book


Holden, S. T., Barrett, C. and Hagos, F. (2006). Food-for-Work for Poverty Reduction and Promotion of Sustainable Land Use: Can it Work? Environment and Development Economics 11, 15-38. Abstract. Paper


Macro-Micro-Environment linkages (funding EU)

Surveys in Debre Zeit and SSNP (2001)


Publications:

Holden, S., Lofgren, H. and Shiferaw, B.(2005). Economic Reforms and Soil Degradation in the Ethiopian Highlands: A Micro CGE Model with Transaction Costs. Paper presented at the ECOMOD conference, Istanbul. Link


Holden, S. and Lofgren, H. (2005). Assessing the Impacts of Natural Resource Management Policy Interventions with a Village General Equilibrium Model. In B. Shiferaw, H. Ade Freeman and S. Swinton (eds.), Natural Resource Management in Agriculture: Methods for Assessing Economic and Environmental Impacts. CABI Publishing, pp. 295-318. Book


Holden, S. (2005). Bio-economic Modelling Approaches for Natural Resource Management Impact Assessment. In B. Shiferaw, H. Ade Freeman and S. Swinton (eds.), Natural Resource Management in Agriculture: Methods for Assessing Economic and Environmental Impacts. CABI Publishing, pp.175-196. Book


Impacts of land certification (funding World Bank)

Used panel data from Tigray (1998-2006)


Publications:

Deininger, K., Ali, D., Holden, S. T. og Zevenbergen, J. (2008). Rural land certification in Ethiopia: Process, initial impact, and implications for the other African countries. World Development 36(10): 1786-1812. Abstract


Holden, S. T., Deininger, K. and Ghebru, H. (2009). Impacts of Low-cost Land Certification on Investment and Productivity. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 91 (2):359-373. Abstract


Holden, S. T., Deininger, K. and Ghebru, H. (2011). Tenure Insecurity, Gender, Low-cost Land Certification and Land Rental Market Participation. Journal of Development Studies 47(1), 31-47. Link


Holden, S. T., Deininger, K. and Ghebru, H.(2011). Does Land Registration and Certification Reduce Land Border Disputes? CLTS Working Paper No.5/2011. Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway. Link


Joint land certification (funding UN-Habitat)

Data: Surveys in SNNP (Wondo Genet, Wollaita) and Oromia (Arsi Negelle, Sashemene) (2007)


Publications:

Holden, S. T. and Tefera, T. (2008). From Being the Property of Men to Becoming Equal Owners? Early Impacts of Land Registration and Certification on Women in Southern Ethiopia. Final Research Report submitted to UN-HABITAT, Shelter Branch, Land Tenure and Property Administration Section. Nairobi. Link


Holden, S. T. and Tefera, T. (2008). Early Impacts of Land Registration and Certification on Women in Southern Ethiopia. Summary Report, UN-HABITAT, Shelter Branch, Land Tenure and Property Administration Section. Nairobi. Link


Joint Certification and Household Land Allocation: - Towards Empowerment or Marginalization? (funding Research Council of Norway)

Data: Surveys in SNNP (Wondo Genet, Wollaita) and Oromia (Arsi Negelle, Sashemene) (2012-2013)


Publications:

Holden, S. T. and Bezu, S. (2013). Joint Land Certification and Intra-household Decision-making: Towards Empowerment of Wives?. CLTS Working Paper No. 14/2013. Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway. Link


Holden, S. T. and Bezu, S. (2014). Are Wives less Selfish than their Husbands? Evidence from Hawk-Dove Game Field Experiments. CLTS Working Paper No. 3/2014. Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway. Link


Holden, S. T. and Bezu, S. (2014). Intra-household Coordination, Cooperation and Pareto-efficiency: Lab-in-the-Field Hawk-Dove Game Experiments. Paper presented at the Norwegian Economists' Annual Conference, January 6-7th, 2014.


Holden, S. T. and Bezu, S. (2014). Tools, Fertilizer or Cash? Exchange Asymmetries in Productive Assets. CLTS Working Paper No. 13/2014. Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas, Norway. - Research brief. Link


Bezu, S. and Holden, S. T. (2014). Demand for second-stage land certification in Ethiopia: Evidence from household panel data. Land Use Policy 41: 193–205. Link


Bezu, S. and Holden, S.T. (2015). Generosity and sharing among villagers: Do women give more? Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics 57: 103-111. Link


Bezabih, M., Holden, S. T. and Mannberg, A. (2016). The Role of Land Certification in Reducing Gaps in Productivity between Male- and Female-Owned Farms in Rural Ethiopia. Journal of Development Studies 52(3): 360–376. Link


The Emergence of  Land Markets in Africa book project (funding EfD, NMBU)

Used our data from Tigray, Amhara, Oromia and SNNP (1998-2006)


Holden, S. T., Otsuka, K. and Place, F., eds. 2008. The Emergence of Land Markets in Africa: Impacts on Poverty, Equity and Efficiency. Resources For the Future Press, Washington D.C. Link


Youth livelihood strategies (funding UN-Habitat)

Surveys in SNNP (Wollaita, Wondo Genet, Awassa), Oromia (Arsi Negelle, Sashemene), and Addis Ababa (migrated youth) (2012-2014)


Publications:

Bezu, S. and Holden, S.T. (2014). Rural-urban Youth Migration and Informal Self-Employment in Ethiopia. CLTS Report No. 1/2014. Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas, Norway. Link


Bezu, S. and Holden, S. T. (2015). Street based self-employment: A poverty trap or a stepping stone for migrant youth in Africa? CLTS Working Paper No. 4/2015. Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas, Norway. Link


Bezu, S., Barrett, C. B. and Holden, S. T. (2014). Activity Choice in Rural Non-farm Employment (RNFE): Survival versus accumulative strategy. CLTS Working Paper No. 11/2014. Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas, Norway. Link


Bezu, S. and Holden, S. T. (2014). Are Rural Youth in Ethiopia Abandoning Agriculture? World Development 64: 259–272. Link


Links between tenure security and food security (funding Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), NMBU and the CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets, led by IFPRI)

Utilized our household panel data from Tigray (1998-2010)


Publications:

Ghebru, H. and Holden, S. T. (2013). Links between Tenure Security and Food Security: Evidence from Ethiopia. CLTS Working Paper No. 2/2013. Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway. Link


Holden, S. T. and H. Ghebru (2016). Links between Tenure Security and Food Security in Poor Agrarian Economies: Causal Linkages and Policy Implications. CLTS Working Paper No. 7/2016. Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas, Norway. Link


Land rental market project (funding UN-Habitat)

Data: Combining panel data from Tigray, Oromia and SNNP (2006-2012)


Publications:

Holden, S. T., Bezu, S. and Tilahun, M.. How Pro-poor are Land Rental Markets in Ethiopia? CLTS Report No. 1/2016. Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas, Norway. Executive summary. Link


Holden, S. T. and Ghebru, H. (2016). Land rental market legal restrictions in Northern Ethiopia. Land Use Policy 55: 212-221. Link


Holden, S. T. and Bezu, S. (2016). Preferences for land sales legalization and land values in Ethiopia. Land Use Policy 52: 410-421. Link


Land Tenure Reform in Asia and Africa book project (funding CLTS/NMBU)

Data: Use our data from Tigray and EfD-data from Amhara (1998-2010)


Publications:

Holden, S. T., Otsuka, K. and Deininger, K. (2013). Land Tenure Reform in Asia and Africa: Assessing Impacts on Poverty and Natural Resource Management. Palgrave Macmillan. Link


Holden, S. T. and Otsuka, K. (2014). The Roles of Land Tenure Reforms and Land Markets in the Context of Population Growth and Land Use Intensification in Africa. Food Policy 48: 88–97 Link


Ghebru, H. and Holden, S. T. (2014). Reverse-Share-Tenancy and Agricultural Efficiency: Farm-Level Evidence from Ethiopia. Journal of African Economies. doi: 10.1093/jae/eju024 Link


Ghebru, H. and Holden, S.T. (2015). Technical Efficiency and Productivity Differential Effects of Land Right Certification: A Quasi-Experimental Evidence. Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture 54 (1): 1-31. Link


Adoption Pathways (funding CIMMYT/Australia)

Data: Survey in SNNP (Wondo Genet, Wollaita), Oromia (Arsi Negelle, Sashemene) (2014)


Tadesse, M. A., Alfnes, F., Erenstein, O., Holden, S. T. (2017). Demand for a labor-based drought insurance scheme in Ethiopia: a stated choice experiment approach. Agricultural Economics, doi: 10.1111/agec.12351. Link


Youth Groups and Livelihoods in Tigray (funding NMBU & CLISNARP)

Data: Youth group survey 2016 & Youth group member surveys and experiments in 2016 and 2017, Vegetation survey 2017.


Publications:

Holden, S. T. and Tilahun, M. (2016). Youth as Environmental Custodians: A Potential Tragedy or A Sustainable Business and Livelihood Model? CLTS Working Paper No. 6/2016. Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas, Norway. Link


Holden, S. T. and Tilahun, M. (2017). The importance of Ostrom's design principles: Youth group performance in Northern Ethiopia. CLTS Working Paper No. 2/2017. Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas, Norway. Link. Presentation at WB Land and Poverty conference


Holden, S. T. and Tilahun, M. (2017). Group Trust in Youth Business Groups: Influenced by Risk Tolerance and Expected Trustworthiness. CLTS Working Paper No. 13/2017. Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas, Norway. Link


Holden, S. T. and Tilahun, M. (2018). The importance of Ostrom's design principles: Youth group performance in Northern Ethiopia. World Development 104: 10-30. Link


Working papers:

Holden, S. T. and Tilahun, M. (2018). Gender Differences in Risk Tolerance, Trust and Trustworthiness: Are They Related? CLTS Working Paper No. 3/2018. Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas, Norway. Link


Conference presentations

Presentation at the CSAE Conference, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford, Oxford 18-20th March 2018: Group Trust in Youth Business Groups: Influenced by Risk Tolerance and Expected Trustworthiness Link



Climate Smart Natural Resource Management and Policy (CLISNARP) (2014-2019) (funding NORAD)

Data: Household survey Tigray 2015, building on Tigray panel (earlier rounds: 1998, 2001, 2003, 2006, 2010)


Publications:

Debela, B. L., Shively, G. and Holden, S.T. (2015). Does Ethiopia’s Productive Safety Net Program improve child nutrition? Food Security 7(6): 1273-1289. Link


Holden, S. T. and Westberg, N. B. (2016). Exploring technology use under climate risk and shocks through an experimental lens. African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 10 (1): 47-62. Link


Holden, S. T. and Ghebru, H. (2016). Links between Tenure Security and Food Security in Poor Agrarian Economies: Causal Linkages and Policy Implications. CLTS Working Paper No. 7/2016. Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas, Norway. Link


Holden, S. T. and Ghebru, H. (2016). Land tenure reforms, tenure security and food security in poor agrarian economies: Causal linkages and research gaps. Global Food Security 10: 21-28. Link


Holden, S. T. and Tilahun, M. (2017). Land Distribution in Northern Ethiopia from 1998 to 2016: Gender-disaggregated, Spatial and Intertemporal Variation. CLTS Working Paper No. 3/2017. Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas, Norway. Link


Araya, G. B. and Holden, S. T. (2017). Is Ethiopia’s Productive Safety Net Program Enhancing Dependency? CLTS Working Paper No. 5/2017. Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas, Norway. Link


Gebru, M., Holden, S. T. and Tilahun, M. (2017). Can the land rental market facilitate smallholder commercialization? Evidence from northern Ethiopia. CLTS Working Paper No. 10/2017. Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas, Norway. Link


Brhanu, D. and Holden, S. T. (2018). Variation in Output Shares and Endogenous Matching in Land Rental Contracts. CLTS Working Paper No. 2/2018. Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas, Norway. Link


Holden, S. T. and Tilahun, M. (2018). The importance of Ostrom's design principles: Youth group performance in Northern Ethiopia. World Development 104: 10-30. Link


Gebru, M., Holden, S. T. and Tilahun, M. (2019). Tenants’ land access in the rental market: evidence from northern Ethiopia. Agricultural Economics,, doi: 10.1111/agec.12484. Link


Hadush, M., Holden, S. T. and Tilahun, M. (2019). Does population pressure induce farm intensification? empirical evidence from Tigrai Region, Ethiopia. Agricultural Economics, doi:10.1111/agec.12482. Link


Capacity building (Master and PhD) projects

DRE Master program (funding NORAD) 1997-2007

Household surveys in SNNP (Wondo Genet, Wollaita) and Oromia (Debre Zeit) (1997-2006)


NOMA (funding NORAD) 2008-2013

Household panel survey in Tigray (2010)


NORHED (CLISNARP) (funding from NORAD) 2014-2019

Household panel survey in Tigray (2015)



Publications on Ethiopia


Shiferaw, B. and Holden, S. T. (1997). Peasant Agriculture and Land Degradation in Ethiopia. Forum for Development Studies 2, 277-306. Abstract


Shiferaw, B. and Holden, S. T.(1998). Resource Degradation and Adoption of Land Conservation Technologies in the Ethiopian Highlands: A Case Study in Andit Tid, North Shewa. Agricultural Economics 18: 233-247. Abstract


Holden, S. T., Shiferaw, B. and Wik, M.(1998). Poverty, Market Imperfections, and Time Preferences: Of Relevance for Environmental Policy? Environment and Development Economics 3: 105-130. Abstract. Link


Shiferaw, B. and Holden, S. T.  (1999). Soil Erosion and Smallholders’ Conservation Decisions in the Highlands of Ethiopia. World Development 27(4): 739-752. Abstract


Shiferaw, B. and Holden, S. T. (2000). Policy Instruments for Sustainable Land Management: The Case of Highland Smallholders in Ethiopia. Agricultural Economics 22: 217-232. Abstract


Shiferaw, B., Holden, S. T., and Aune, J. (2000). Population Pressure and Land Degradation in the Ethiopian Highlands: A Bio-Economic Model with Endogenous Soil Degradation. In N. Heerink, H. van Keulen, and  M. Kuiper (eds.), Economic Policy Reforms and Sustainable Land Use - Recent Advances in Quantitative Analysis for Developing Countries. Springer Verlag. Book chapter


Holden, S. T. and Shiferaw, B. (2000). Incentives for Sustainable Land Management in Peasant Agriculture in the Ethiopian Highlands. In D. Sanders, P. Huszar, S. Sombatpanit and T. Enters (eds.), Using Incentives in Soil Conservation. To be published by Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Dehli for World Association of Soil and Water Conservation. Abstract


Shiferaw, B. and  Holden, S. T. (2001). Farm Level Benefits to Investments for Mitigating Land Degradation: Empirical Evidence from Ethiopia. Environment and Development Economics 6: 335-358. Abstract


Holden S. T., Shiferaw, B. and Pender, J. (2001). Market Imperfections and Land Productivity in the Ethiopian Highlands. Journal of Agricultural Economics 52 (3): 62-79. Abstract


Holden, S. T. and Yohannes, H. (2002). Land Redistribution, Tenure Insecurity and Input Intensity: A Study of Farm Households in Southern Ethiopia. Land Economic 78, 4  (October 2002), 573-590. Abstract


Holden, S. T. and Shiferaw, B.(2002). Poverty and Land Degradation: Peasants’ Willingness to Pay to Sustain Land Productivity. In C. B. Barrett, F. M. Place, and A. A. Aboud (eds.), Natural Resource Management in African Agriculture: Understanding and Improving Current Practices. CABI Publishing in Association with International Centre for Research in Agroforestry, Oxon and New York. Book


Holden S. T., Benin, S., Shiferaw, B. and Pender, J. (2003). Tree Planting for Poverty Reduction in Less-Favoured Areas of the Ethiopian Highlands. Small-scale Forest Economics, Management and Policy 2 (1): 63-80. Abstract


Holden, S. T., Shiferaw, B. and Pender, J. (2004). Non-farm Income, Household Welfare and Sustainable Land Management in a Less-favoured Area in the Ethiopian Highlands. Food Policy 29, 369-392. Abstract


Holden, S. T. and Shiferaw, B. (2004). Land Degradation, Drought and Food Security in a Less-favoured Area in the Ethiopian Highlands: A Bio-economic Model with Market Imperfections. Agricultural Economics 30 (1): 31-49. Abstract


Barrett, C., Holden, S. and  Clay, D. (2005). Can Food-For-Work Programs Reduce Vulnerability? In S. Dercon, (ed.), Insurance Against Poverty. Oxford University Press, Oxford. Book. Chapter


Holden, S., Lofgren, H. and Shiferaw, B.(2005). Economic Reforms and Soil Degradation in the Ethiopian Highlands: A Micro CGE Model with Transaction Costs. Paper presented at the ECOMOD conference, Istanbul. Link


Holden, S. and Lofgren, H. (2005). Assessing the Impacts of Natural Resource Management Policy Interventions with a Village General Equilibrium Model. In B. Shiferaw, H. Ade Freeman and S. Swinton (eds.), Natural Resource Management in Agriculture: Methods for Assessing Economic and Environmental Impacts. CABI Publishing, pp. 295-318. Abstract


Holden, S. T., Shiferaw, B. and Pender, J. (2005). Policy Analysis for Sustainable Land Management and Food Security – A Bio-economic Model with Market Imperfections. Research Report 140. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington D. C. Abstract and Full Report. Full report


Holden, S. T., Barrett, C. and Hagos, F. (2006). Food-for-Work for Poverty Reduction and Promotion of Sustainable Land Use: Can it Work? Environment and Development Economics 11, 15-38. Abstract. Paper


Holden, S. T., Shiferaw, B. and Pender, J. (2006). Policies for Poverty Reduction, Sustainable Land Management and Food Security  – A Bio-economic Model with Market Imperfections.  In J. Pender, F. Place and S. Ehui (eds.), Strategies for Sustainable Land Management in the East African Highlands. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, D. C. Book


Bezabih, M. and Holden, S. T. (2006). Tenure insecurity, transaction costs in the land lease market and their implications for gendered productivity differentials. 26th International Conference of the International Agricultural Economics Association, Brisbane, Australia, 12-18. August, 2006. See: Link


Kassie, M. and Holden, S. T. (2007). Sharecropping Efficiency in Ethiopia: Threats of Eviction and Kinship. Agricultural Economics 37:179-185. Abstract


Bezabih, M. and Holden, S. T. (2008). Contract Renewal and Tenure Insecurity in Explaining Productivity Differentials between Female- and Male-owned Farms. Paper presented at the Nordic Development Economics Conference at Oscarsborg, Drøbak, 18-19 June, 2009. Paper


Holden, S. T. and Bezabih, M. (2008). Gender and Land Productivity on Rented Out Land: Evidence from Ethiopia. In Holden, S. T., Otsuka, K. and Place, F. (Eds.). The Emergence of Land Markets in Africa: Impacts on Poverty and Efficiency. Resources For the Future Press, Washington D.C. Paper


BOOK: Holden, S. T., Otsuka, K. and Place, F. (Eds) (2008). The Emergence of Land Markets in Africa: Impacts on Poverty, Equity and Efficiency. Resources For the Future Press, WashingtonD.C. Link


Deininger, K., Ali, D., Holden, S. T. og Zevenbergen, J. (2008). Rural land certification in Ethiopia: Process, initial impact, and implications for the other African countries. World Developmen 36(10): 1786-1812. Abstract


Bezu, S. and Holden, S. T. (2008). Can Food-for-Work Encourage Agricultural Production? Food Policy 33(5): 541-549. Abstract


Holden, S. T. and Tefera, T. (2008). From Being Property of Men to Becoming Equal Owners? Early Impacts of Land Registration and Certification on Women in Southern Ethiopia. UN-HABITAT, Shelter Branch, Land Tenure and Property Administration Section. Nairobi. Link


Holden, S. T. and Tefera, T. (2008). Early Impacts of Land Registration and Certification on Women in Southern Ethiopia. Summary Report, UN-HABITAT, Shelter Branch, Land Tenure and Property Administration Section. Nairobi. Link


Holden, S. T., Deininger, K. and Ghebru, H. (2009). Impacts of Low-cost Land Certification on Investment and Productivity. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 91 (2):359-373. Abstract


Holden, S. T., Deininger, K. and Ghebru, H. (2009). Impact of Land Certification on Land-related Conflicts. Submitted to Land Economics. Abstract


Gebregziabher, G., Namara, R. E. and Holden, S. T. (2009). Poverty reduction with irrigation investment: An empirical case study from Tigray, Ethiopia. Agricultural Water Management 96, 1837-1843. See: Abstract


Holden, S. T., Deininger, K. and Ghebru, H. (2010). Impact of land registration and certification on land border conflicts in Ethiopia. Paper presented at the World Bank Annual Conference on Land Policy and Administration in Washington DC April 26-27, 2010. Link


Gebregziabher, G. and Holden, S. T. (2011). Distress Rentals and the Land Rental Market as a Safety Net: Evidence from Tigray, Ethiopia. Agricultural Economics 42, 45-60. Abstract


Holden, S. T., Deininger, K. and Ghebru, H. (2011). Tenure Insecurity, Gender, Low-cost Land Certification and Land Rental Market Participation. Journal of Development Studies 47(1), 31-47. Link


Gebregziabher, G. and Holden, S. T. (2011). Does Irrigation Enhance and Food Deficits Discourage Fertilizer Adoption in a Risky Environment? Eveidence from Tigray, Ethiopia. Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics 3(10), 514-528. Link


Holden, S. T., Deininger, K. and Ghebru, H.(2011). Does Land Registration and Certification Reduce Land Border Disputes? CLTS Working Paper No.5/2011. Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway. Link


Holden, S. T. and Ghebru, H. (2011). Household Welfare Effects of Low-cost Land Certification in Ethiopia. CLTS Working Paper No. 3/2011. Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway. Link


Ghebru, H. and Holden, S. T. (2012). Reverse Share-Tenancy and Marshallian Inefficiency:  Bargaining Power of Landowners and the Sharecroppers’ Productivity CLTS Working Paper No 10/2012. Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway. Link


Bezabih, M., Holden, S. T. and Mannberg, A. (2012). The Role of Land Certification in Reducing Gender Gaps in Productivity in Rural Ethiopia CLTS Working Paper No 9/2012. Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway. Link


NEW BOOK:Land Tenure Reform in Asia and Africa: Assessing Impacts on Poverty and Natural Resource Management. Edited by Stein T. Holden, Keijiro Otsuka and Klaus Deininger. Palgrave Macmillan 2013. Link


Holden, S. T. and Otsuka, K. (2013). The Roles of Land Tenure Reforms and Land Markets in the Context of Population Growth and Land Use Intensification in Africa. CLTS Working Paper No. 15/2013. Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway. Link


Holden, S. T. and Bezu, S. (2013). Joint Land Certification and Intra-household Decision-making: Towards Empowerment of Wives?. CLTS Working Paper No. 14/2013. Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway. Link


Bezu, S. and Holden, S. T. (2013). Generosity and social distance in dictator game field experiments with and without a face. CLTS Working Paper No. 1/2013. Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway. Link. Powerpoint


Bezu, S. and Holden, S. T. (2013). Land Access and Youth Livelihood Opportunities in Southern Ethiopia CLTS Working Paper No. 11/2013. Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway. Link


Bezu, S. and Holden, S. T. (2013). Unbundling Land Administrative Reform: Demand for Second Stage Land  Certification in Ethiopia. CLTS Working Paper No. 3/2013. Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway. Link


Ghebru, H. and Holden, S. T. (2013). Links between Tenure Security and Food Security: Evidence from Ethiopia. CLTS Working Paper No. 2/2013. Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway. Link


Holden, S. T. and Bezu, S. (2014). Are Wives less Selfish than their Husbands? Evidence from Hawk-Dove Game Field Experiments. CLTS Working Paper No. 3/2014. Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway. Link


Holden, S. T. and Bezu, S. (2014). Intra-household Coordination, Cooperation and Pareto-efficiency: Lab-in-the-Field Hawk-Dove Game Experiments, by-Paper presented at the Norwegian Economists' Annual Conference, January 6-7th, 2014.


Legesse Debela, B. and Holden, S. T. (2014). How Does Ethiopia’s Productive Safety Net Program Affect Livestock Accumulation and Children’s Education?. CLTS Working Paper No. 8/2014. Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway. Link


Legesse Debela, B. Shively, G. and Holden, S. T. (2014). Does Ethiopia's Productive Safety Net Program Improve Child Nutrition? CLTS Working Paper No. 1/2014. Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway. Link


Ghebru, H. and Holden, S. T. (2014). Reverse-Share-Tenancy and Agricultural Efficiency: Farm-Level Evidence from Ethiopia. Journal of African Economies. doi: 10.1093/jae/eju024 Link


Holden, S. T. and Otsuka, K. (2014). The Roles of Land Tenure Reforms and Land Markets in the Context of Population Growth and Land Use Intensification in Africa. Food Policy 48: 88–97. Link


Bezu, S. and Holden, S. T. (2014). Are Rural Youth in Ethiopia Abandoning Agriculture? World Development 64: 259–272. Link


Bezu, S. and Holden, S. T. (2014). Demand for second-stage land certification in Ethiopia: Evidence from household panel data. Land Use Policy 41: 193–205. Link


Holden, S. T. and Bezu, S. (2014). Land Valuation and Perceptions of Land Sales Prohibition in Ethiopia. CLTS Working Paper No. 12/2014. Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas, Norway. Link


Holden, S. T. and Bezu, S. (2014). Tools, Fertilizer or Cash? Exchange Asymmetries in Productive Assets. CLTS Working Paper No. 13/2014. Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas, Norway. Link


Ghebru, H. and Holden, S.T. (2015). Technical Efficiency and Productivity Differential Effects of Land Right Certification: A Quasi-Experimental Evidence. Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture 54 (1): 1-31. Link


Debela, B. L., Shively, G. and Holden, S.T. (2015). Does Ethiopia’s Productive Safety Net Program improve child nutrition? Food Security 7(6): 1273-1289. Link


Bezu, S. and Holden, S. T. (2015). Street based self-employment: A poverty trap or a stepping stone for migrant youth in Africa? CLTS Working Paper No. 4/2015. Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas, Norway. Link


Bezu, S. and Holden, S.T. (2015). Generosity and sharing among villagers:Do women give more?. Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics 57: 103-111. Link


Bezabih, M., Holden, S. T. and Mannberg, A. (2016). The Role of Land Certification in Reducing Gaps in Productivity between Male- and Female-Owned Farms in Rural Ethiopia. Journal of Development Studies 52(3): 360–376. Link


Tadesse, M. A., Holden, S. T., Øygard, R. A. and McPeak, J. (2016). Cattle sharing and rental contracts in an Agrarian economy: evidence from Ethiopia. Agricultural Economics 47(5): 479-492. Link


Holden, S. T. and Ghebru, H. (2016). Land rental market legal restrictions in Northern Ethiopia. Land Use Policy 55: 212-221. Link


Holden, S. T. and Bezu, S. (2016). Preferences for land sales legalization and land values in Ethiopia. Land Use Policy 52: 410-421. Link


Holden, S. T., Bezu, S. and Tilahun, M. (2016). How Pro-poor are Land Rental Markets in Ethiopia? CLTS Report No. 1/2016. Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas, Norway. Link. Executive summary


Holden, S. T. and Ghebru, H. (2016). Land tenure reforms, tenure security and food security in poor agrarian economies: Causal linkages and research gaps. Global Food Security 10: 21-28. Link


Holden, S. T. and Westberg, N. B. (2016). Exploring technology use under climate risk and shocks through an experimental lens. African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 10 (1): 47-62. Link


Araya, G. B. and Holden, S. T. (2017). Is Ethiopia’s Productive Safety Net Program Enhancing Dependency? CLTS Working Paper No. 5/2017. Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas, Norway. Link


Tadesse, M. A., Alfnes, F., Erenstein, O., Holden, S. T. (2017).  Demand for a labor-based drought insurance scheme in Ethiopia: a stated choice experiment approach. Agricultural Economics, doi: 10.1111/agec.12351. Link


Holden, S. T. and Tilahun, M. (2017). Land Distribution in Northern Ethiopia from 1998 to 2016: Gender-disaggregated, Spatial and Intertemporal Variation. CLTS Working Paper No. 3/2017. Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas, Norway. Link


Holden, S. T. and Tilahun, M. (2017). The importance of Ostrom's design principles: Youth group performance in Northern Ethiopia. CLTS Working Paper No. 2/2017. Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas, Norway. Link


Gebru, M., Holden, S. T. and Tilahun, M (2017). Can the land rental market facilitate smallholder commercialization? Evidence from northern Ethiopia. CLTS Working Paper No. 10/2017. Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas, Norway. Link


Holden, S. T. (2017). Policies for Improved Food Security: - The Roles of Land Tenure Policies and Land Markets. CLTS Working Paper No. 9/2017. Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas, Norway. Link


Holden, S. T. and Tilahun, M. (2017). Group Trust in Youth Business Groups: Influenced by Risk Tolerance and Expected Trustworthiness. CLTS Working Paper No. 13/2017. Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas, Norway. Link


Brhanu, D. and Holden, S. T. (2018). Variation in Output Shares and Endogenous Matching in Land Rental Contracts. CLTS Working Paper No. 2/2018. Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas, Norway. Link


Holden, S. T. and Tilahun, M. (2018). The importance of Ostrom's design principles: Youth group performance in Northern Ethiopia. World Development 104: 10-30. Link


Gebru, M., Holden, S. T. and Tilahun, M. (2019). Tenants’ land access in the rental market: evidence from northern Ethiopia. Agricultural Economics,, doi: 10.1111/agec.12484. Link


Hadush, M., Holden, S. T. and Tilahun, M. (2019). Does population pressure induce farm intensification? empirical evidence from Tigrai Region, Ethiopia. Agricultural Economics, doi:10.1111/agec.12482. Link


Brhanu, D. and Holden, S. T. (2020). Variation in Output Shares and Endogenous Matching in Land Rental Contracts: Evidence from Ethiopia. Journal of Agricultural Economics 71(1): 260-282. Link


Working papers:

Holden, S. T. and Tilahun, M. (2018). Gender Differences in Risk Tolerance, Trust and Trustworthiness: Are They Related? CLTS Working Paper No. 3/2018. Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas, Norway. Link


Conference presentations

Presentation at the CSAE Conference, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford, Oxford 18-20th March 2018: Group Trust in Youth Business Groups: Influenced by Risk Tolerance and Expected Trustworthiness Link



Presentations (joint papers with Mesfin Tilahun) at the Annual World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty in Washington, DC on 20th-24th March, 2017: 

  • The Importance of Ostrom's Design Principles: Youth Group Performance in Northern Ethiopia. Link
  • Land distribution in Noerthern Ethiopia from 1998 to 2016: Gender-disaggregated, Spatial and Intertemporal Variation. Link

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