Land productivity studies

These studies have investigated the following issues:

  • How do land reforms affect land productivity?
  • Do land markets lead to more efficient land use?
  • Are female farmers as productive as male farmers?
  • How is caste discrimination affecting land productivity?
  • How does land degradation and land conservation affect land productivity?
  • How does poverty affect land degradation and investment in conservation?
  • How does tenure insecurity affect investment in land and land productivity?
  • How do factor market imperfections affect land productivity and the relationship between farm size and land productivity?
  • How does climate risk affect land productivity and incentives to intensify production?


Bezabih, M., Holden, S. T. and Mannberg, A. (2016). The Role of Land Certification in Reducing Gaps in Productivity between Male- and Female-Owned Farms in Rural Ethiopia. Journal of Development Studies 52(3): 360–376. Link

Holden, S. T. and Fisher, M. (2015). Subsidies promote use of drought tolerant maize varieties despite variable yield performance under smallholder environments in Malawi. Food Security 7(6): 1225-1238. Link

Ghebru, H. and Holden, S. T. (2014). Reverse-Share-Tenancy and Agricultural Efficiency: Farm-Level Evidence from Ethiopia. Journal of African Economies. doi: 10.1093/jae/eju024 Link

Holden, Stein T. and Julius Mangisoni (2013). Input subsidies and improved maize varieties in Malawi: - What can we learn from the impacts in a drought year? CLTS Working Paper No. 7/2013. Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway. Link

Holden, Stein T. (2013). Amazing maize in Malawi: Input subsidies, factor productivity and land use intensification. CLTS Working Paper No. 4/2013. Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway. Link

Aryal, J. and Holden, S. T. (2010). Caste, Marshallian Inefficiency, and the Farm Size-Productivity Relationship. Paper under revision for Economic Development and Cultural Change.

Link (Paper II, p. 63-110)

Holden, S. T. and Lunduka, R. (2010). Too Poor to be Efficient? Impacts of the Targeted Fertilizer Subsidy Program in Malawi on Farm Plot Level Input Use, Crop Choice and Land Productivity. Report to NORAD. Department of Economics and Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås. Link to paper. Link to blog briefs.

Holden, S. T., Deininger, K. and Ghebru, H. (2009). Impacts of Low-cost Land Certification on Investment and Productivity. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 91 (2):359-373. Abstract

Holden, S. T. and Bezabih, M. (2008). Gender and Land Productivity on Rented Out Land: Evidence from Ethiopia. In Holden, S. T., Otsuka, K. and Place, F. (Eds.). The Emergence of Land Markets in Africa: Impacts on Poverty and Efficiency. Resources For the Future Press, Washington D.C. Paper

Bezabih, M. and Holden, S. T. (2008). Contract Renewal and Tenure Insecurity in Explaining Productivity Differentials between Female- and Male-owned Farms. Paper presented at the Nordic Development Economics Conference at Oscarsborg, Drøbak, 18-19 June, 2009. Paper

Kassie, M. and Holden, S. T. (2007). Sharecropping Efficiency in Ethiopia: Threats of Eviction and Kinship. Agricultural Economics 37:179-185. Abstract

Holden, S. T. and Yohannes, H. (2002). Land Redistribution, Tenure Insecurity and Input Intensity: A Study of Farm Households in Southern Ethiopia. Land Economic 78, 4  (October 2002), 573-590. Abstract

Shiferaw, B. and  Holden, S. T. (2001). Farm Level Benefits to Investments for Mitigating Land Degradation: Empirical Evidence from Ethiopia. Environment and Development Economics 6: 335-358. Abstract

Holden, S. T., Shiferaw, B. and Pender, J. (2001).  Market Imperfections and Land Productivity in the Ethiopian Highlands. Journal of Agricultural Economics 52 (3): 62-79. Abstract. Paper

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